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"Genetic Transformation of Plants: Methods and Applications 2009-2016"

Volume 22 of "Recent Advances in Plant Tissue Culture

Edwin B. Herman

Publication: June, 2016. 130 pp. Spiralbound
Price: $139.00 (Shipping and handling: $8.00 for U.S. delivery, $15.00 elsewhere).

"Genetic Transformation of Plants: Methods and Applications 2009-2016" is the twenty-second in a series reporting recent developments in plant tissue culture and biotechnology. Unlike most books, which have long publication delays, the "Recent Advances in Plant Tissue Culture" series is updated within one month of the book's publication date. Of the very large number of papers and meeting presentations on the subject that have been published during this time period, those of particular interest and of potential practical application have been chosen for publication in this volume In order to make it easy for the reader to obtain further information on material covered in the book, a directory consisting of full postal and email addresses addresses of cited authors is included.

CONTENTS:

CHAPTER 1 IMPROVING BACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION 7
I. Isolation and Evaluation of New Agrobacterium Strains 7
II. Effects of Medium Composition 8 A. Ammonium Nitrate Induces High-Frequency Transformation 8
B. Removal of KH2PO4, NH4NO3, KNO3, and CaCl2 9
C. Effects of Copper Sulfate 9
III. "Fast Agro-mediated Seedling Transformation" 10
IV Tissue Browning: Help or Hindrance for Genetic Transformation? 11
V. Comparison of Vacuum and Pressure Methods 13
VI. Use of Detergents 13
VII. Use of Lipoic Acid 14
VII. Importance of Agrobacterium Preculture 15
VIII. Wounding Techniques 16
A. Embryo Piercing and Vacuum Infiltration 16
B. Micro-Wire Brush Wounding 16
C. Punctured-hypocotyl Technique 17
IX. Explants from Cotyledon Cuttings 18
X. Use of KCl and Rare Earth Elements 18
XI. Agrobacterum-mediated Transformation of Specific Crops 20
A. Rice 20
B. Cotton 20
C. Apple 21
D. Wheat 21
E. Whole Soybean Seedlings 22
F. Tea 22
G. Japanese Cedar 23
H. Grapevine 23
I. Wormwood 24
J. Papaya 25
K. Tomato 26
XII. Antioxidants Enhance Agrobacterium-mediated Transformation 26
XIII. Use of a DNA-derived Nano Complex 27
XIV. Transformation by Suppression of Immune Responses 28
XV. Vacuum Infiltration of Sprouts for Virus-induced Gene Silencing 28
XVI. Plant Growth-promoting Rhizobacteria Enhance Transformation 29
XVII. Heat and High Maltose Enhances Transformation 30
XVIII. Coculture on Paper Wicks and Vacuum Infiltration 30
XIX. Temporary-immersion System 32
XX. Combined Semi-In Vitro and In Vivo Protocol 32
XXI. Airlift Bioreactor Improves Genetic Transformation 33
XXII. Effect of Heat Shock 34
XXIII Transformationof Protoplasts 34
XXIV. Effect of Quorum-sensing Molecules 35
XXV. Effects of Extracellular Cellulose and Lectin 36
XXVI. Effects of the Maize knotted1 (kn1) Gene 37
XXVII. Natural Genetic Modification of Crops by Agrobacterium 37
XXVIII. Control of Bacterial Contamination during Transformation 38

CHAPTER 2: METHODS FOR DIRECT TRANSFORMATION OF PLANTS 39
I. Tungsten-based Microparticle Bombardment 39
II. Comparison of Gene Guns 39
III. Agrobacterium-Coated Microparticle Bombardment 40
IV. Microspore Transformation by Combined Biolistics and Agroinfiltration 40
V. Nano-Biolistics 41
VI. Amberlite XAD-4 Resin Improves Transgenic Explant Viability 42
VII. Improved Particle Bombardment Technique 43
VIII. Plastid Transformation 43
IX. Coating Procedures for Biolistic Transformation 45
X. Magnetic Gold Particles Transform Cells in a Magnetic Field 45
XI. Genetic Transformation Using Microinjection with Agrobacteria 46
XII. Cell-penetrating Peptides Carry Macromolecules into Cells 47
XIII. Nano/Micro Technologies 49
XIV. Uses for Quantum-dots and Cell-penetrating Peptides 49
XV. Zinc-finger Nucleases Allow Efficient Gene Targeting of Plants 50
XVI. Spike-dip Transformation 51

CHAPTER 3: GENE FUNCTION, REGULATION, EXPRESSION AND STRATEGIES FOR DETECTING AND SELECTING TRANSENIC PLANT TISSUES 52
I. Simple Techniques for Exploration of Gene Function 52
II. High-Throughput GFP Screening of Transformed Plants 53
III. Encapsulation Technique for Antibiotic Selection of Transformants 54
IV. Histone Genes Enhance Transformation & Transgene Expression 54
V. Preservation and Expression of Alfalfa Transgene in “Artificial Seeds” 55
VI. Enhanced Detection of Weak GFP Expression 56
VII. Methods for Enhancing Transient Gene Expression 56
VIII.Sound Regulates Plant Genes and Controls Pathogens 57
IX. DNA Methylation Inhibitor Enhances Recovery of Regeneration 58
X. Rapid Assay for Gene Function in Plants 58

CHAPTER 4: HAIRY ROOTS AND rol GENES 60
I. Hairy Roots as an Assay for Light-Induced Cell Damage 60
II. Production of Hairy-root Cultures 60
A. Amberlite XAD-4 & Temporary Immersion Enhance Hairy-root Initiation 60
B. “Easy and Early” Production of Hairy-root Cultures 61
C. Production of Transgenic Roots from Foliar Explants 62
D. Sonication and Heat Enhances Production of Hairy-roots 62
E. Production of Hairy Roots in a Stirred-tank Bioreactor 63
F. Seaweed Enhances Hairy Root Growth and Withanolode Yield 63
G. Increased Growth and Alkaloid Production by Hairy Roots 64
III. Selection of Hairy Roots 64
IV. Products from Hairy-root Cultures 65
A. Mammalian Protein 65
B. Saponins 66
C. Antibacterial Ginsenosides 67
D. Tropane Alkaloids 67
E. Artemisinin 69
F. Valarenic Acid 70
G. Azadirachtin 71
H. Antifungal Compounds 72
I. Human Growth Hormone 72
J. Oral Vaccine for Rabies 73
K. Tanshinone 74
L. Effect of Light on Regulation of Flavone Synthesis 75
M. Saponin 76
N. Taxane 76
O. Iridoid and Phenylethanoid Glycosides 77
P. Xanthone 78
Q. Vanillin 78
R. Alkannin and Shikonin Derivatives 78
S. Trans-resveratrol 79
T. Kaempferol 80
U. Glucosinolates 80
V. Simultaneous Recovery of Two Products 81
V. Novel Applications of A.rhizogenes -mediated Transformation 82
A. Increase of Soil-holding Capacity 82
B. Inhibition of Root-knot Nematodes 82

CHAPTER 5: Other Applications and Effects of Genetic Transformation 84
I. Biosynthetic Pathway Regulation 84
II. Production of a Recombinant Proteins 86
III. Scale-up of Recombinant Human Antibody Yield by BY-2 Cells 87
IV. Oral Vaccines 88
V. Control of In Vitro Regeneration 90
A. SOD Transgene Enhances Shoot Regeneration in Pepper 90
B. Cyclin D Genes Enhance Banana Regeneration 90
C. Expression of Gene Enhances Somatic Embryogenesis 91
D. Nopaline Agrobacterium tzs Gene Enhances Transformation 92
E. Effects of gfp Genes on Regeneration of Tobacco 92
F. Down-regulation of Genes Enhances Plant Regeneration 93
G.. Gene Expression Improves Regeneration and Stress Tolerance 94
VI. Improving Pathogen Resistance and Fruit Taste 95
VII. Enhancement of Salinity and Drought Stress Tolerance 95
VIII. Stategies to Improve the Nutritional Value of Crops 97
IX. Unintended Consequences of Plant Genetic Transformation Procedures 98
X. Genetic Modification Does Not Interfere with Interaction with AM Fungi 99
XI. Phytoremediation of Environmental Pollutants 100
XII. Manipulation of Flower Color in Transgenic Plants 101
XIII. Effects of an Early Flowering Gene 103
XIV. Transformation via In Vitro Shoot Grafting 103
XV. Production of Anthocyanins 104
XVI. Production of Sweeter Fruits 105

CHAPTER 6: PATENTS 107
I. Transgenic Bioluminescent Plants 107
II. Use of a Medium Enriched with a Metal Salt 107
IV. Heating and Centrifugation 108
V. Solid Support for Coculture with Agrobacterium 108
VI. A Pneumatic Capillary Ballistic Gun 108
VII. Laser Gun 109
VIII. Use of Stinging Capsules 109
IX. Non-Agrobacterium Bacterium for Genetic Transformation 110
X. Stem-dip Protocol for Producing Transgenic Broadleaf Trees 111
XI. Overexpression of the PGA6 Gene Induces Somatic Embryogenesis 111
XII. Increasing Transformation Efficiency in Plants 112
XIII. Novel Plant Transformation Method 112
XIV. Improving Genetic Transformation Efficiency Using a Powder 113
XV. Copper Amino Acid Chelate Increase Transformation Efficiency 114
XVI. Nanocarriers Deliver Biomolecules into Plant Cells 114

DIRECTORY OF RESEARCH 116

TAXONOMIC INDEX OF PLANTS 128

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