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"MEDIA AND TECHNIQUES FOR GROWTH, REGENERATION AND STORAGE: 2011-2015"

Volume 21 of Recent Advances in Plant Tissue Culture

by Edwin B. Herman, Editor, Agricell Report

CONTENTS:

CHAPTER 1 PLANT TISSUE CULTURE MEDIUM AND VESSELS 7 I. Designing Plant Tissue Culture Media 7 A. New Methods for Developing Tissue Culture Media 7 B. Improved Medium for Maize Micropropagation 8 C. Low-cost Media 9 D. Effects of Media Water Relations on Embryo Maturation 14 E. A Plant Tissue Culture Medium for Diverse Species 15 F. Marker Pigments to Identify Plant Tissue Culture Media 15 II. Explant Support Substrates 16 A Low-cost Substrates 16 B Double Agar Layer Treatment of Plantlet Roots 20 C. Inorganic Supporting Materials for Phototrophic In Vitro Culture 20 III. Culture Vessels 21 A. Comparison of Culture Vessels for In Vitro Growth, Development and Metabolite Production 21 B. Temporary Immersion Systems 22 C. Mist Bioreactor 26 D. Bioreactors for Large Scale Culture of Panax ginseng 26 E. Split Airlift Bioreactor 27 F. Culture Vessel Closures 27 V. Comparison of Solid and Liquid Culture for Multiplication of Explants 29 IV. Microwave “Sterilization” of Culture Media 31

CHAPTER 2 New Techniques and Systems 33 I. Novel Lighting Systems 33 II. Cell Culture 33 A. Aggregate Size as a Variable in Plant Cell Suspension Cultures 33 B. Scale-up of Plant Cell Suspension Cultures 34 III. Protoplast Culture 35 IV. Organ Culture 36 A. Embryo Culture 36 B. In Vitro Flowering 39 V. Androgenesis and Microspore Culture 42 A. Microspore Culture Techniques 42 B. Effects of Polyamines 48 C. Pollen Germination 49 VI. In Vitro Culture of Whole Fruits 51 VII. Enhancing In Vitro Seed Germination 52 VIII. Methods of Enhancing Stress Tolerance 54 IX. Control of Explant Browning 55 X Control of Hyperhydricity 57 XI. Hairy Root Cultures 58 XII. Enhancing Embryogenesis 59 XIII. Alternate Pathways for Regeneration 60 XIV. Micrografting 61 XVI. Ionizing Irradiation Yields Novel Flower Colors 61 XVII. Sensitivity of Avocado Somatic Embryos to Antibiotics 63 XVIII. Early Markers of Embryogenic Capacity 63 XIX. Effects of DNA Methylation 64

CHAPTER 3 Enhancement of Growth, Development and Regeneration 67 I Fragmentation Enhances Adventitious Shoot Regeneration 67 II. Direct Plant Regeneration from Pre-plasmolysed Explants 67 II. Chemical Factors 68 A. Thiosulfate 68 B. Growth Inhibitors 68 C. Amino Acids and Amines 68 D. Hyaluronic Acid 70 E. Sorbitol 71 F. Thiosulfate 71 G. Antibiotics 72 H. Nitric Oxide 74 I. Surfactants 75 J. Smoke-derived Compounds 77 K. Organic Additives and Carbohydrate Sources 78 L. Silver Nitrate 79 M. Salisylic Acid 79 N. Benzothiadiazole and OTC 79 O. Boron and Calcium 80 P. Methylglyoxal 81 Q. Mitochondria-targeted Antioxidant 81 R. Chitosan 81 S. Novel Cytokinin Analogue 82 T. Cobalt 83 U. Thidiazuron and 24-Epibrassinolide 83 V. Perluorocarbons 84 W. L-Ascorbic Acid 84 X. DMSO 84 Y. Arabinogalactan Protein 85 Z. Redox Agents 85 III. Biological Factors 86 IV. Physical Factors 87 A. Light Quality 87 B. Magnetic Fields 89 C. Abiotic Stresses 90 D. Ultrasound 91 E. Ultraviolet Irradiation 91 F. Effects of Gamma Rays and Methyl Jasmonate 92 G. Temperature 93 H. Laser Irradiation

93 CHAPTER 4 Germplasm Preservation and Shipment 94 I. Cryopreservation 94 A. Cryopreservation of Conifers Without a Cryoprotectant 94 B. Aluminum Cryoplate Technique 94 C. Method for Cryopreserving a Recalcitrant Species 96 D. Comparison of Cryopreservation Techniques 96 E. High-throughput Cryopreservation of Cells 97 F. Simple Cryopreservation of Coconut 98 G. Optimization of Droplet-Vitrification Cryopreservation 98 H. Effect of 24-Epibrassinolide 98 I. A Feasible, Rapid and Safe Cryopreservation Method 99 J. Plantlet Recovery After Long-term Cryopreservation 99 II. In Vitro Storage 100 A. In vitro Storage and Germination of Apple Pollen 100 B. Trehalose Extends In Vitro Storage Period of Micropropagules 101 C. Mineral Oil Extends Survival of Explants Without Subculture 101 III. Artificial Seeds 102

CHAPTER 5 New Applications and Discoveries 107 I. Bioremediation by Root Cultures 107 II. Effect of In Vitro Competition on Flax Regeneration 107 III Methods for Virus Elimination 108 IV. Imaging of In Vitro Plant Growth anf Development 110 V. Detection of Endophytes by Means of Protoplast Culture 111 VI. Antimicrobial Activity of In Vitro-synthesized Silver Nanoparticles 112 VII. Biochar: An Activated Charcoal Substitute for Plant Tissue Culture 112 VIII. Weed Control with Tissue Culture Extracts 113 IX. Image Recognition System 113 X. Uses of Nanomaterials in In Vitro Plant Cultures 114 XI. Plant Odors as Markers of Environmental Stress 117 XII. Partial Photoautotrophic Culture Reduces Cost of Germplasm Exchange 118 XIII. A Novel Technique for Counting Plant Cells 119 XIV. Effect of “Inter-culture” on Wheat Regeneration 119 XV. Protoplast Co-culture Assay for Allelopathy and Salt Tolerance 120 XVI. In Vitro Uses for Quantum-dots and Cell-penetrating Peptides 120

CHAPTER 6 Patents 121 I. Medium for Non-sterile Sowing of Somatic Embryos 121 II. Aerated Liquid Priming of Conifer Somatic Embryos 121 III. Novel Method for Gentle Aeration and Mixing of Cell Cultures 122 IV. Generation of Single Cells Suspensions with Intact Cell Walls 122 V. Induction of Somatic Embryogenesis by Overexpression of the PGA6 Gene 123 VI. S(+)-Abscisic Acid Promotes Maturation and Development of Somatic Embryos 123 VII. Improved Germination of Artificial Seeds 124 VIII Inducing and Maintaining In Vitro Plant Cultures as Single Cells 125 IX. Production of Stratified Conifer Somatic Embryos 126 X. Mass Harvesting, Storage & Preparation of Somatic Embryos 126 XI. A Method of Classifying Plant Embryos 127 XII. Storage of Meristematic Tissue from Seeds 127 XIII. Nanocarriers Introduce Foreign Substances Into Plant Cells 128 XIV. Induced Chromosome Doubling 129 RESEARCH DIRECTORY 130 TAXONOMIC INDEX 146

Publication: October 9, 2015. 148 pp. Spiralbound. Price: $139.00 (Shipping and handling: $8.00 for U.S. delivery, $20.00 elsewhere)

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