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"Microbial Organisms In Plant Tissue Cultures: 2007-2012"

Volume 16 of Recent Advances in Plant Tissue Culture

by Edwin B. Herman, Editor, Agricell Report

"Microbial Organisms In Plant Tissue Cultures: 2007-2012" is the sixteenth in a series, based on articles published in Agricell Report, that reports recent developments in plant tissue culture. The Recent Advances in Plant Tissue Culture series is updated within one month of the book's publication date. In order to make it easy for the reader to obtain further information on material covered in the book, a directory consisting of full email and postal addresses is included. The book also includes a plant taxonomic index.

CONTENTS:

CHAPTER 1. PLANT TISSUE CULTURE CONTAMINANTS

I. Sources of Contamination: A. Environmental, B. Alcohol

II. Detection, Identification and Characterization of Contaminants: A. Endophytic Contaminants 1. Endophytes Cause Browning 2. Bacteria Present in "Symptomless" Tissue Cultures 3. Human Pathogenic Bacteria as Plant "Endophytes" 4. Direct Visualization of Endophytes in Plant Cells 5. Endophytic Amoebal Contamination 6. Determining Nonendophytes from Endophytes B. Latent Contaminants 1. Effects of Antibiotics, 2. Latent Bacteria Enhance Micropropagation, 3. Persistence of Latent Contaminants C. Identification of Bacteria in Apple Cultures D. Persistence of Bacterial Contaminants in "Clean" Cultures E. Model Systems for Studying Plant-Pest Interactions

CHAPTER 2. CONTROL OF TISSUE CULTURE CONTAMINANTS

I. Disinfestation of Culture Vessels and Media: A. Sodium Hypochlorite, B. Ozone, Chlorine Dioxide,

II. Explant Disinfestation and Contaminant Control,

A. Selection of Explant Position, B. Using Compressed Air to Expose Apical Meristems, C. Drought Stress, D. Elimination of Stress, E. Acid Scarification of Seeds, F. Plant Preservative Mixture (PPM), 1. Use in Synthetic Seeds, 2. Localization and "Eradication" of Endophytes, 3. Effectiveness Against an Endophytic Contaminant, 4. PPM and Antibiotics G. Nano Silver, H. Essential Oils, I. Antibiotics and Fungicides, J. Comparison of Antibiotics, K. Carbenicillin, L. Ampicillin, M. Chlorine, N. Control of Mite Infestations, O. Comparisons of Disinfestation Methods, P Novel System Protects Cells from Contamination, Q. Control of Latent Contamination, R. Sound Regulates Plant Genes and Controls Pathogens, S. Use of Zerotol to Reduce Explant Contamination,

III. Elimination of Viruses

A. Survival, Detection, and Elimination of Viruses, B. Mechanism of Virus Elimination via Somatic Embryogenesis 40

IV. Effects of Antimicrobials and Fungicides on Tissue Cultures

A. PPM and Alginate Encapsulation, B. Effects of Antimicrobial Compounds on Embryo Cultures, C. Polyamines and b-Lactam Antibiotics, D. PPM Allows Development of True Synthetic Seeds, E. Antibiotics and Fungicides Promote In Vitro Regeneration, F. Effects of Bleomycin on Microspore Embryogenesis, G. Fungicides Inhibit Pollen Germination, H. Antibacterial Agent Affects Microtuberization and Growth, I. Synergistic Effect of Antibiotics for Micropropagation,

III. Elimination of Viruses

A. Survival, Detection, and Elimination of Viruses, B. Mechanism of Virus Elimination via Somatic Embryogenesis,

IV. Effects of Antimicrobials and Fungicides on Plant Tissue Cultures

A. PPM and Alginate Encapsulation, B. Effects of Antimicrobial Compounds on Embryo Cultures, C. Polyamines and b-Lactam Antibiotics, D. PPM Allows Development of True Synthetic Seeds, E. Antibiotics and Fungicides Promote In Vitro Regeneration, F. Effects of Bleomycin on Microspore Embryogenesis, G. Fungicides Inhibit Pollen Germination, H. Antibacterial Agent Affects Microtuberization and Growth, I. Synergistic Effect of Antibiotics for Micropropagation,

CHAPTER 3. NON-AXENIC PLANT TISSUE CULTURE

I. Medium for Non-sterile Sowing of Somatic Embryos or Germinants,

II. Coculture with Bacteria, A. Bacteria and Bacterial Extracts Promote Micropropagation, B.Necessity of Endophytes for Safe Micropropagation, C. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria as Biocontrol Agents, D. Coculture with Microorganisms Enhances Metabolite Yields, E. Bacterization Enhances Acclimatization, F. Ex Vitro Bacterial Inoculation Improves Growth of Micropropagules, G. Bacterization Enhances Growth of In Vitro-cultured Banana, H. Bacteria Can Replace IBA for Rooting of In Vitro-Cultured Olive, I. Browning Control in Transgenic Kiwifruit Explants, J. Effect of Rhizobacteria on Explant Growth and Nitrogen Fixation, K. Biotization Improves Explant Survival and Nutrient Uptake, L. Coculture with Microalgae and Cyanobacteria, M. Bacterial Spray Enhances Acclimatization of Micropropagules,

II. Uses for Agrobacterium rhizogenes and ROL Genes

A. Effects of rol Genes, 1. Enhancement of Anthraquinone Production, 2. Stimulation of Saponin Production, Transformation with rol Results in Improved Plant Qualities

III. Hairy Root Cultures A. An Ethanol-Inducible Promoter System for Hairy Root Cultures, B. Phytoremediation of Zinc by Black Nightshade Hairy Root Cultures, C. Predicting Growth and Nutritional Behavior of Cells & Hairy Roots, D. Antimicrobials Found in Spent Artemisia Hairy-root Culture Medium, E. Pak-Bung Hairy Roots as an Assay for Light-induced Cell Damage, F. Production and Release of Secondary Metabolites, 1. Coumarins and Linear Furanocoumarins, 2. Resveratrol, 3.Withanolides, 4. Tanshinone, 5. Gastrodin, 6. Stilbenoids, 7. Human Acetylcholinesterase, 8. Ginsenosides, Terpenoid Indole Alkaloids, 10. Tropane Alkaloids, 11. Anticancer Saponins, 12. Shooty Teratoma as a Source of Secondary Metabolites G. Genetic Transformation and Elicitation Enhances Product Yield, H. Heat-inducible Gene Expression in Transgenic Hairy Roots,

IV. Microalgae and Cyanobacteria Improve Shoot and Anther Cultures

V. Coculture with Fungi

A. Asymbiotic Versus Symbiotic Micropropagation of Orchids, B. Fungal Endophyte Protects Against Banana Weevil, C. Trichoderma Inoculation, D Endosymbiotic Root Fungus as a "Biopriming" Agent, E. Effects of Inoculation with Micorrhizal Fungi on: 1. Alder, 2. Musli, 3. Ginger, 4. Linum album, 5. Cassava, 6. Olive, 7. Meyer’s Dwarf Greek Fir F. Rapid Mycorrhization of Seedlings Under In Vitro Conditions, G. Intrinsic Association of Endophytic Fungi with Micropropagated Plants, H. Seed Culture Identifies Fungi Needed for Orchid Propagation, I. Inhibition of Phytopathogens by Mycorrhiza-associated Bacteria, J. Genetic Modification of Flax Does Not IntefereWith its Interaction With AM Fungi

VI. Plant Virus Propagation via In Vitro Plant Culture

CHAPTER 4. PRODUCTION OF ANTIMICROBIAL COMPOUNDS BY PLANT TISSUE CULTURES

I. Broad-spectrum Antimicrobial Callus Extract

II. Sesamine

III. Flavonoids

IV. 9-methoxycanthin-6-one

V. Antimicrobial Compounds from Auvolfia tetraphylla, Physalis minima, Uraria picta, Inospora cordifolia, and Thespesia populnea Callus Cultures

VI. Diterpenoids

VII. Antimicrobial Agents from Elicited Plant Cell Cultures

CHAPTER 5. BACTERIA-MEDIATED GENETIC TRANSFORMATION

I. Methods for Enhancing Agrobacterium-mediated Transformation

A. Disarmed A. rhizogenes Strains, B. Buffering of Coculture Medium, C. Temperature and Centrifugation Pretreatments, D. Optimization of Vacuum Infiltration Conditions, E. Coculture on Moistened Filter Paper, F. Floral-dip Transformation, G. Nuclear Matrix Attachment Regions (MARs), H. Ammonium Nitrate, I. Optimization of Culture Conditions, J. Histone Genes, K. Faster Transformation of Cotton, L. Micro-Wire Brush, M. Amberlite XAD-4 Resin, N. Plant Growth-promoting Rhizobacteria, O. Antioxidants, P. KCl and Rare Earth Elements, Q. Membranes or Filters as Solids Supports, R. Thiamine, S. Injection into Soybean Pods,

II. Mechanism of Recalcitrance to Agrobacterium-mediated Transformation

III. Coculture & Washing Protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated Transformation

IV. Simplified Agrobacterium-mediated Transformation Methods

V. Comparison of Methods for Genetic Transformation

VI. In Planta Transformation

VII. Transformation by Embryo Piercing and Vacuum Infiltration

VIII. Combined Biolistics & Agroinfiltration for Microspore Transformation

IX. Tissue Browning: Help or Hindrance for Genetic Transformation?

X. Encapsulation Technique for Antibiotic Selection of Transformants

XI. Improved Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated Transformation of Rice

XII. Rapid Assay for Gene Function in Transgenic Plants

XIII. Transformation Via Agrobacterium-coated Microparticle Bombardment

XIV. Engineering Secondary Metabolism in Plant Cells

XV. Use of a Non-Agrobacterium Bacterium for Genetic Transformation

XVI. Improved Method for Transformation of Plant Embryos

XVII. Production of Transgenic Roots from Foliar Explants

RESEARCH DIRECTORY

MEETINGS AND SYMPOSIA

INDEX OF PLANT SPECIES

Publication: April, 2012. 130 pages. Spiralbound. Price: $139.00 (Shipping and handling: $8.00 for U.S. delivery, $20.00 elsewhere).

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