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"Secondary Metabolite Production"

Volume 14 of Recent Advances in Plant Tissue Culture

by Edwin B. Herman, Editor, Agricell Report

"Secondary Metabolite Production" is the fourteenth in a series, based on articles published in Agricell Report, that reports recent developments in plant tissue culture. Unlike most plant tissue culture books, which have long publication delays, the Recent Advances in Plant Tissue Culture series is updated within 30 days of the book’s publication date (July 16, 2010).

This book covers, alphabetically, plants that have been used to produce relatively high yields of secondary metabolites over the past ten years as well as methods that have been used to increase in vitro secondary metabolite production. In order to make it easy for the reader to obtain further information on material covered in the book, a directory consisting of postal addresses, email addresses and fax numbers of cited authors is included. The book concludes with an index of plant secondary metabolites that have been produced by plant in vitro culture


Achyranthes japonica (Japanese Chaff Flower) 15
I. Ceramic Powders Enhance In Vitro Growth and Metabolite Production - Also see Achyranthes japonica, Centella asiatica, Hyoscyamus niger, H. albus, Platycodon grandiflorum, Scopolia parviflora

Aconitum (Wolfsbane) 15
I. Aconitine Alkaloids

Adhatoda vasica (Malabar Nut Tree) 16
I. Vasicine and Vasicinone

Agave amaniensis 16
I. Effect of Copper on Production of Hecogenin — A Steroidal Drug Precursor

Ajuga turkestanica 16
I. Phytoecdysteroids

Albizzia kalkora (Medicinal Tree) 17
I. Bacterization Stimulates Isoflavone Yield

Allium sativum (Garlic) 17
I. Alliin
II. Novel Cysteine Peptidase

Alternanthera brasiliana 18
I. Analgesic Extract

Ammi majus (Bishop’s Weed) 19
I. Elicitation by Electromagnetic Treatment

Ammi majus and Ruta graveolens 19
I. Root-Shoot Coculture Increases Secondary Metabolite Yield

Anchusa officinalis (Bugloss) 20
I. Enzyme Production in a Perfusion Stirred-Tank Reactor

Andrographis paniculata 21
I. Andrographolide

Aphelandra 21
I. Verbascoside (Acteoside)

Arabidopsis thaliana 21
I. Hairy Root Cultures
A. Alleviating Oxygen Deficiency Problems
B. Effect of Hairiness on Fluid Flow and Oxygen Transfer

Arachis hypogaea (Peanut) 23
I. Production of Resveratrol by Hairy Root Cultures

Aralia elata (Angelica Tree) 24
I. Aralin — An Anti-cancer Drug

Armoracia rusticana (Horseradish) 24
I. Elicitation by Heavy Metal Ions

Arnebia euchroma 25
I. Production of Shikonin in Liquid Culture Systems
II. Effect of Rare Earth Elements

Artemisia annua (Wormwood) 26
I. Artemisinin (Antimalarial Compound)
A. Stimulation of Production by DMSO
B. Elicitation by Nitric Oxide
C. Elicitation by Fungi
D. Effect of Growth Regulators on Production
E. Photoautotrophic Micropropagation Promotes Artemisinin Production
II. Increasing Artemisia Hairy Root Growth in Nutrient Mist Bioreactors

Artemisia dubia and A. indica 29
I. Antimicrobials in Spent Hairy-root Culture Medium

Atropa baetica 29
I. Total Conversion of Hyoscyamine to Scopolamine

Atropa belladonna (Deadly Nightshade) 30
I. Radical Scavenger Promotes Tropane Alkaloid Production
II. Control of tropane Alkaloid Synthesis by Hairy-Root Genes
III. Effects of Chemicals on Release of Alkaloids by Hairy Roots

Azadirachta indica (Neem) 31
I. High Azadirachtin Production by Hairy-root Cultures

Bacopia mannieri 32
I. Bacosides

Berberis parvifolia (Barberry) 32
I. Protoberberine Alkaloids

Beta vulgaris (Red Beet) 33
I. Betalain Pigments
A. Feeding of Cultures
B. Effects of Biotic and Abiotic Elicitors
C. Novel Approaches for Production and Release of Betalaine Pigments
D. Simultaneous Monitoring of Morphology and Betalaine Production
II. Low Shear Stress Pre-culture Induces Tolerance of Subsequent High Shear Stress Culture Conditions

Bupleurum falcatum 36
I. Sugar Levels Control Saikosaponin Production

Caesalpia pulcherrima 36
I. Cork Stimulates Production of Homoisoflavonoids

Camptotheca acuminata (Happy Tree) 37
I. Camptothecin and 10-Hydrocamptothecin (Anticancer Drugs)
II. Anthocyanin

Capsicum annuum 37
I. Capsaicin and Vanillin

Capsicum frutescens 38
I. Preferential Production of Vanillin or Capsaicin by Precursor-fed Cells

Cassia obtusifolia 39
I. Rare Earth Element Stimulates Secondary Metabolite Production

Catharanthus roseus (Madagaskar Periwinkle) 39
I. Vincristine and Vinblastine
A. Levels in In Vitro Plantlets
II. Catharanthine
A. Production Enhancement by Nitric Oxide
B. Osmotic Shock Improves Catharanthine Production
III. Ajmalicine
A. Sparge Gas Composition Affects Biomass and Ajmalicine Production
B. Artificial Cell Wall Stimulates Extracellular Ajmalicine Production
IV. Biotransformation of DHEA
V. Vindoline and Serpentine
A. Effects of Light and Plant Hormones on Production of Vindoline and Serpentine
VI. Different Alkaloids Elicited by the Same Elicitor in Different Tissues of the Same Plant
VII. Indole Alkaloids
A. Callus Compaction Influences Metabolite Yield
B. Rare Earths Promote Alkaloid Production
C. Conditioned Medium Enhances Production of Alkaloids
D. Production Enhancement by UV-B Light
E. Alkaloid Levels in Root Cultures
VIII. Indole Alkaloids and Coumarin
A. Macerozyme Stimulates Indole Alkaloid and Coumarin Accumulation
IX. Continuous Extraction of indole alkaloids with Silicon Oil
X. Scaling Up Alkaloid Production

Cayratia trifolia (Tropical Liana) 46
I. Stilbenes

Cephaelis ipecacuanha 47
I. Intergeneric Cocultivation Increases In Vitro Metabolite Yield
II. Coculture of Plant Cells Increases Secondary Metabolite Production - See

Centella asiatica 48
I. Centellosides

Chrysanthemum cinerarifolium 48
I. Production of Pyrethrins

Cleome rosea 49
I. Antiviral Extracts

Coleus forskohlii 50
I. Forskolin

Commiphora wightii 50
I. Plant Gum: A New Elicitor of Guggulsterone Production
II. Morphactin Enhances Guggulsterone Production

Coptis japonica 52
I. Effects of Cork on Secondary Metabolite Yield - Also See Sophora flavescens

Cordyceps militaris 52
I. Antiinflammatory Polysaccharide

Corydalis yanhusuo 52
I. Protoberberine-type Alkaloids

Coscinium fenestratum 53

Crocus sativus (Saffron) 53
I. Crocin
II. Anticancer Compound
III. Saffron

Cucumis melo (Muskmelon) 54
I. Aroma Compounds

Curcuma longa (Turmeric) 55

Cyperus aromaticus 55
I. Insect Juvenile Hormone

Datura metel and Hyoscyamus muticus 56
I. Tropane Alkaloids

Daucus carota 56
I. ß-Carotene from Suspension Cultures using Response Surface Methodology
II. Investigating Productivity Dynamics of Pigmented Cell Cultures

Dendrobium huoshanense (Medicinal Orchid) 57
I. Polysaccharides

Digitalis thapsi 58
I. Cardenolide Production

Digitalis lanata 58

Duboisia 59
I. Scopolamine

Duboisia myoporoides 59
I. Tropane Alkaloids: Hyoscyamine and Scopolamine

Echinacea angustifolia 60
I. Ultrasound Improves In Vitro Growth and Metabolite Yield

Echinacea purpurea (Coneflower) (also see Panax ginseng) 60
I. Cichoric Acid
II. Nitric Oxide Elicitation

Echium italicum (Italian Bugloss) 61
I. Liquid Paraffin Elicits Alkannin and Shikonin Derivative Production

Epimedium diphyllum 62

Eriobotrya japonica 62
I. Bioactive Triterpenes

Escholzia californica (California Poppy) 62
I. Benzophenanthridine Alkaloids

Eucalyptus camaldulensis 63
I. High Production of Mono- and Sesquiterpenes by Flower-derived Calli

Fagara zanthoxyloides 64 Production of Fagaronine, An Antileukemic Alkaloid

Forsythia x intermedia 64
I. Anti-Cancer Lignans from Cell Suspension Cultures

Fragaria ananassa (Strawberry) 65
I. Determination of Pigment Accumulation in Individual Cells by Image Analysis
II. Production of Anthocyanins

Galphimia glauca 66
I. Galphimine-B Production

Gardenia jasminoides 67
I. Production of Crocin by Gardenia Callus Cultures

Gastrodia elata 67
I. Gastrodin

Genista tinctoria 68
I. Phytoestrogen (Genistin)
II. Coculture of Shoots and Hairy Roots Yields High Phytoestrogen Levels

Getiana straminea 69
I. Gentiopicroside

Ginkgo biloba 70
I. Coculture with Microorganisms Enhance Secondary Metabolite Yields
II. Ginkgo Flavonoids

Glehnia littoralis 71
I. Furanocoumarins

Gloriosa orangea and G. rothschildiana 71
I. Colchicine

Gloriosa superba 72
I. Colchicine

Glycine max (Soybean) 72
I. High Isoflavone Production by 25-Year-Old Cell Cultures

Glycyrrhiza glabra 72

Glycyrrhiza uralensis 73
I. Product Enhancement by Combining Genetic Transformation and Elicitation

Helianthus annuus (Sunflower) and Arabidopsis 73
I. Vitamin E

Helianthus annuus 74
I. Vitamin E

Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle) 74
I. Blue Light Enhances Anthocyanin Yield

Hyoscyamus albus 74
I. Antimicrobial Phytoalexin Production

Hyoscyamus muticus 75
I. Optimizing Hairy-root Culture Growth by Minimizing the Number of Root Hairs

Hyoscyamus niger (Black Henbane) 75

Hypericum androsaemum 76
I. influence of Extracellular Calcium on Flavonoid Accumulation

Hypericum perforatum (Saint John’s Wort) 76
I. Hyperforin and Hypericins
II. Combined Action of NO and H2O2 in Hypericin Production
III. Comparisons of Various Culture Systems
IV. Elicitation by Coculture with Agrobacterium tumefaciens
V. Cork Increases Secondary Metabolite Production
VI. Effects of Growth Regulators




Publication: August, 2010. 176 pp. Spiralbound. Price: $139.00 (Shipping and handling: $8.00 for U.S. delivery, $20.00 elsewhere).

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