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"Micropropagation Systems, Techniques and Applications 2006-2010"

Volume 13 of Recent Advances in Plant Tissue Culture

by Edwin B. Herman, Editor, Agricell Report

"Micropropagation Systems, Techniques and Applications 2006-2010" is the 13th in a series, based on articles published in Agricell Report, that reports recent developments in plant tissue culture. The Recent Advances in Plant Tissue Culture series is updated within one month of the book’s publication date (January, 2010). In order to make it easy for the reader to obtain further information on material covered in the book, a directory consisting of full email and postal addresses is included. The book also includes a list of meetings and symposia and a taxonomic index.

CONTENTS:

CHAPTER I. MICROPROPAGATION SYSTEMS

I. Photoautotrophic Micropropagation 8
II. Liquid Culture 9
A. Coffee Micropropagation 9
B. Conifer Micropropagation 10
III. Solid vs. Liquid Cultures for Micropropagation 11
IV. Combined In Vitro and Hydroponic Systems. 11
V. Temporary Immersion Systems 13
A. Reduction of Labor Cost 13
B. Continuous vs. Temporary Immersion 13
C. Optimization of Temporary Immersion Micropropagation 14
D. Automated Closed-cycle Temporary Immersion System 15
E. Solidified Medium Culture Versus Temporary Immersion 15
VI. Novel Micropropagation Lighting Systems 16
A. Side Light Hollow System 16
B. Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamps 16
C. Light-emitting Diodes 17
D. Chopper Light 18
E. Hybrid Electrode Fluorescent Lamps 19
VII. Protocols for Micropropagation without Autoclaving 19
VIII. Double Layer System Improves Micropropagation 21
IX. Closed Plant Production System 21
X. Vegetative Micro-cloning 22
XI Fragmented Shoot Apex Culture 23

CHAPTER 2. MICROPROPAGATION TECHNIQUES -

I. Enhanced Conversion of Somatic Embryo 25
A. L-Proline and Polyethylene Glycol 25
B. Conditions of Storage 25
C. Phenolic Compounds 26
D. Effect of Somatic Embryo Morphology 26
E. Carbohydrate Source and Polyethylene Glycol 27
F. Spermidine-Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Synergism 28
II. In Vitro Rescue of Zygotic Embryos 28
A. Stonefruit 28
B. Cotton 29
III. In Vitro Seed Germination 29
A. Use of Carbon Nanotubes 29
B Use of Acid or Hot Water 30
C. Cotton Substrate Doubles Seed Germination 31
IV. Protecting Plantlets Against Tissue Culture-Related Damage 31
V. Analysis of Gaseous Environment for Use in In Vitro Systems 32
VI. Regeneration from Long-term Cultures 32
VII Effects of Physical Supports on Micropropagation 34
VIII. In Vitro Rooting 35
A. Effect of Orientation 35
B. Stimulation by Crude Oil Fractions 35
C. Effect of Shoot Cocultivation 35
D. Effect of Root Cocultivation 36
E. Peptone Promotes Survival, Shoot and Root Formation 37
F. Specific Compounds as Markers of In Vitro Rootability 37
G. Regulation of Lateral Root Formation In Vitro 38
H. Chitosan Enhances Rooting and Hardening 38
I. Rooting of Pear with Polyvinyl Alcohol 39
IX. In Vitro Multiplication and Shoot formation 40
A. Effect of Light Quality on In Vitro Multiplication 40
B. Agar Substitutes Enhance In Vitro Multiplication 41
C. Effects of Medium Components 41
1. Lignosulfonates 41
2. Meta-topolins 42
3. Sodium Nitroprusside 42
4. Glutamine 43
5. High Copper Levels 43
6. Amino Acid and Polyamines 44
7. Chitosan and Jasmonates 44
8. Effect of FeEDDHA on Multiplication 45
D. Monitoring of In Vitro Shoot Formation 45
X. Air Current Measurements Within Culture Vessels 46
XI. Use of Genetic Transformation in Micropropagation 46
A. rolC Gene Induces Embryogenesis and Shoot Organogenesis 46
B. SOD Transgene Enhances Shoot Regeneration 47
XII. Hydrogen Peroxide as a Chemical “Sterilizer” 47
XIII. Inexpensive Medium Components for Micropropagation 48
XIV. Effects of Mother Plant Temperature Exposure 51
A. Effects on Bud Set and Height of Micropropagated Trees 51
B. Stimulation of Adventitious Regeneration 52
XV. Coculture with Callus Improves Growth of Seedlings 52
XVI. PPM and Alginate Encapsulation Improve Micropropagation 53
XVII. Adsorbant or Antioxidant Enhances Regeneration of Faba Bean 53
XVIII Control of Shoot-tip Necrosis In Harpagophytum procubens 54
XIX Endosperm-supported Culture Enhances Barley Regeneration 54
XX Effect of In Vitro Culture Vessel Type on Micropropagation 54
XXI Promotive Effects of Smoke-saturated Water 55
A. On Micropropagation 55
B. On In Vitro Seed Germination 55
XXII Effects of Electrical Currents on Regeneration and Virus Elimination 57
XXIII Improved Vitroplant Shipping Method 57
XXIV Improved Slow Growth Storage 58
XXV Predicting Regenerative Capacity 58

CHAPTER 3. ACCLIMATIZATION OF MICROPROPAGULES

I. Microbial Inoculants Enhance Acclimatization 60
A. Bacteria 60
B. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium 61
C. Ex Vitro Bacterial Inoculation 62
D. Newly Described Fungus Promotes Growth 62
E. Trichoderma 63
F. Arbuscular-Mycorrhizal fungi 64
II. Effects of ALA-based Fertilizer 66
III. Control of Hyperhydricity 66
A. Dispenser Paper Closures 66
B. Fiber Supports 67
C. Unusual Types of Water 68
D. Acclimatization of Aquarium Plant Micropropagules 68
E. Effect of Substrates on Acclimatization 69
F. CCC Priming Improves Rooting &Acclimatization 69
G. Acclimatization of North American Ginseng 70
H. Reversal of Hyperhydricity in Atriplex canescens 70
I. Abscisic Acid Promotes Acclimatization 71
J. Ground Melia Leaves Improve Acclimatization 72

CHAPTER 4. MICROPROPAGATION OF SELECTED PLANTS

I. Banana 73
A. Enhancing Banana Regeneration 73
B. Pest Control Agents 73
1. Fusarium oxysporum 73
2. Pseudomonas 74
3. Fungal and Bacterial Endophytes 76
C. Control of Shoot Necrosis 76
D. Yellow Light Promotes In Vitro Shoot Growth 76
E. Prevention and Reversal of Lethal Browning 77
F. Lengthening Musa Subculture Intervals 77
G. Disinfestation of Banana Explants 78
II. Orchids 78
A. Effects of Culture Ves sel, Gelling Agent, and Additives 78
B. Effects of Medium Components 79
1. Coconut Water and Activated Charcoal 79
2. Chitosan 80
3. Putrescine 80
4. Brassinolide 81
6. Banana Extract 82
7. Low-cost Medium Components 83
C. Use of Mycorrhizal Fungi and Trichoderma 84
D. Asymbiotic Vs. Symbiotic Micropropagation of Orchids 85
E. In Vitro Flowering 87
F. In Vitro Seed Germination 90
G. Effects of Light Quality 91
H. Differentiation of Orchid Ecotypes 92
I. Static Liquid Culture Improves Germination and Growth 93
J. Direct Somatic Embryogenesis 93
K. Rapid Acclimatization to Ex Vitro Conditions 93
L. Ploidy Doubling in Orchids 94
III. Sugarcane 98
A. Midrib Segment Explants Used for Direct Regeneration 95
B. Use of Pectimorf in Sugarcane Micropropagation 95
C. Controlling the Pattern of Regeneration 96
D. Regeneration from Irradiated Sugarcane Cultures 96
E. Effects of Various Amino Acids on Sugarcane Regeneration 97
F. Production of Sugarcane in a Temporary Immersion System 98
IV. Pines 98
A. Somatic Embryogenesis 98
1. Effect of Smoke-saturated Water 98
2. Effect of High Osmotic Pressure 99
3. Liquid Overlays Improve Embryogenic Tissue Initiation 99
4. Calcium Requirement for Cold-enhancement of Somatic Embryogenesis 100
5. Citric Acid Stimulates Growth of Somatic Embryos 100
6. Salicylic Acid Enhances Somatic Embryogenesis 101
V. Pineapple 101
A. Reducing the Cost of Pineapple Micropropagation 102
VI. Potato 103
A. Effects of Planting Bed Compositions on Growth of Micropropagated Potato Cuttings 103
B. Improvements in Yield and Quality of Potato Minitubers 103
C. In Vitro Tuberization 104
1. Theobroxide Stimulates Potato Tuberization 104
2. Effect of Temperature Variations 105
D. Low-cost Gelling Agent for Potato Micropropagation 105
E. Extreme Disease Resistance via Somatic Hybridization 106
F. Abscisic Acid Induces Freezing Tolerance 106
G. Use of In Vitro Cultures to Predict Drought Tolerance 107

CHAPTER 5. APPLICATIONS OF MICROPROPAGATION

I. In Vitro Flowering 109
A. Control of In Vitro Flowering of Hybrid Tea Rose 109
B. In Vitro Flowering of Chili Pepper, Spathiphyllum, Banana 109
C. In Vitro Flowering of Black Nightshade and Orange Jessamine 111
D In Vitro Flowering of a Chinese Herb 111
E. In Vitro Flowering of Dioscorea zingiberensis 112
II. Thornless Rose Obtained via Chimeral Separation 112
III. New Plants via In Vitro Selection 113
A. Use of Irradiation to Rapidly Create New Flower Cultivars 113
B. A Source of New Flower Color Variability 114
C. Cold-resistant Plants from Cold-treated Tissue Cultures? 114
D. Ozone-tolerant Plants 115
E. Drastic Reduction of Nicotine in Tobacco 116
IV. Flower Color Variations via Heavy Ion Beam Irradiation 116
V. Phytoplasma Detection In Rose Using Micropropagation 117

RESEARCH DIRECTORY 119

ABBREVIATIONS 134

TAXONOMIC INDEX 136

RESEARCH DIRECTORY

TAXONOMIC INDEX

Publication: 2010. 138 pp. Spiralbound. Price: $129.00 (Shipping and handling: $8.00 for U.S. delivery, $20.00 elsewhere).

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